• Problems and Solution to explore the Universe Team | 11 Oct 2018

    Forget everything you have seen and heard about Space Exploration , let’s use our common sense about the temperature of the different planets of our solar system and the sun:

    The surface temperatures of the planets

    The surface temperatures of the planets vary from more than 400°C on Mercury and Venus to below -200°C on the distant planets. The factors that determine the temperature are a complex balance between the amount of heat received and that lost.

    The heat received by a planet varies with its distance from the Sun, for it is the Sun’s radiation which is by far the greatest source of planetary warming. There are additional sources of heat such as gravitational contraction which adds to the energy balance in Jupiter’s atmosphere and also small contributions from radio-active decay. These effects are dwarfed, however, by the influx of energy from the Sun.

    The Sun’s energy

    The Sun emits radiation through all the electromagnetic spectrum from radio-waves to Xrays. This radiation spreads out through the whole solar system. In the same way that we receive more heat from a fire when we are close to it than we do when we are a long way from it, the planets which are close to the Sun receive more heat than those further away. This simple fact explains broadly the range of surface temperatures for the planets according to their distance from the Sun. The actual situation is more complicated.

    Solar system Average temperature, Earth is the luckiest one suitable for bacteria multiplication.

    What happens to the Sun’s radiation when it reaches a planet?

    Radiation from the Sun is lessened by the inverse square law as it reaches further and further away from the Sun. So the further away that a planet is from the Sun then the less radiation it receives. What happens to that radiation depends on whether the planet has an atmosphere, whether the atmosphere contains clouds and how the clouds, or the surface, reflect the radiation.

    Planets with no atmosphere

    For planets with no atmosphere all the Sun’s radiation will strike the surface. Some of this will be reflected away from the planet but the rest will be absorbed. The temperature of the surface will be raised until there is equilibrium between the energy radiated by the warm surface of the planet and the received solar radiation.

    For planets like Mercury, this results in a very hot surface where the Sun is shining (more than 400°C) but very cold on the night side, where the radiation from the surface rapidly cools it to -180°C.

    The Moon is similar in many ways to Mercury. The night-side of the Moon, hiding behind Earth and itself, is at almost -180°C, the same temperature as that of Mercury, but the day-side, due to the higher amount of radiation without its own obstruction, the temperature reaches 110°C.

    Planets with atmospheres

    The Earth is, of course, a planet with an atmosphere and we can use it as an example. Our atmosphere is largely transparent to the incoming solar radiation although there are constituents in the atmosphere which prevent some kinds of radiation from reaching the surface, such as Van Allen Belts, the ozone which stops the ultraviolet, and the thickness of the atmosphere. A fair proportion of the Earth atmosphere is covered by clouds which reflect a lot of the Sun’s radiation and it has been postulated that drastic change in the amount of cloud could precipitate a Mini Ice-Age, to be followed by an ice-age (thus dramatically affecting the surface temperature).

    The atmosphere affects the radiation emitted by the warm Earth and release  some of this by the ‘greenhouse effect’. Water Vapor (H2O), not Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main constituent which does this and there are fears by thermophobic, anthropogenic, Climate Alarmist that increases in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will cause global warming of the Earth and change its climatic patterns. The other main effect of the atmosphere, particularly when it is cloudy, is to trap the radiation from the Earth during the night, keeping the temperature fairly close to that in the day.

    The planet Venus is an extreme example of the ‘greenhouse effect’. Venus is surrounded by clouds which prevent a lot of the Sun’s radiation from reaching the surface and so we might have expected the surface to be colder because of double distance from the sun than Mercury. However, the atmosphere of Venus is largely composed of carbon dioxide which traps most of the radiation from the planet’s surface, not Water Vapor (H2O). This is so effective that the surface is heated to 480°C!

    The planet Mars has an atmosphere but this has a surface pressure less than one hundredth of the Earth’s. It thus has only a small effect and the surface of Mars can vary between 0°C in summer and -100°C in winter.

    The giant planets

    The giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn all have only small solid cores which are surrounded by enormously thick layers of liquid forms of substances that on Earth we encounter as gases. The giant planets receive only a small amount of radiation from the Sun and this is insufficient to raise their temperatures above the point at which these gases liquefy or freeze.

    Minor bodies in the solar system

    Most minor bodies in the solar system have no atmospheres and so can easily radiate any heat received from the Sun. This means that on their sunward facing sides they will be warm (the temperature depending on their distance from the Sun) but any part which is not warmed by the Sun will be colder than -200°C.

    The effect of rotation

    The Earth rotates once per day. This means that the temperature of the unwarmed side has only a short time to cool. At the poles this is not true and so the temperature there can fall much lower. The same effect holds for the other planets but the effects can be far more drastic.

    Mercury has no seasons because there is a coupling between its rotational and orbital periods. This means that some places on the surface receive more than two and a half times as much radiation from the Sun than others.

    Mars has seasons rather like the Earth, but the distance of Mars from the Sun varies much more than the Earth’s does and so this effect is correspondingly much greater.

    Of the giant planets the most peculiar climatically is Uranus whose rotation axis is almost in the plane of its orbit. This means that winter at its poles lasts 42 Earth-years!


    Temperatures lower than 18°C or higher than 24°C can be a health risk. But human can still live between -10°C to 45°C with ideal temperature of 22°C. Below 60 degrees (15.55C), most people start putting on sweaters and jackets. At 58 degrees F (14.4C) in your living room you’re probably gonna turn up the heat. The same in space, temperature will have to be maintained between 18°C and 24°C.

    Let alone the sun, how is that possible to explore other planet of our solar system  with temperature ranging from -200°C to more than 400°C with only energy available for just few days while the traveling time will take ages?

    Aquatic creatures and plants can only survive on Earth. With today technology, it is impossible to mass produce them between -200°C and  -10C or between 45C to more than 400°C temperature range.

    Electronics will not operate between -200°C and  -10C or between 45C to more than 400°C temperature range nether.

    Atmosphere composition and gravity are other issues that make today space program impossible.


    Data from NASA’s TIMED satellite shows that the thermosphere (the uppermost layer of air around our planet) is cooling from Solar Maximum 1200 Kelvin (927ºC) to 650 Kelvin (377ºC) and shrinking, literally decreasing the radius of the atmosphere, an atmospheric compression event.

    If the International Space Station altitude is above 300km altitude, how it can survive constantly inside large area of 927ºC during Solar Minimum and 377ºC during Solar Minimum ?

    At about 90km altitude temperatures start to rise from -100ºC until they hit the Kármán line which is 120km high. After this line, the heat abruptly increases rising rapidly to 200km whereby it starts to level off (100km is the very start of the radiation belts as well which become full strength at 200km funnily enough), although other sources say it continually rises. Temperatures can vary, depending on sun activity, but can reach as high as… wait for it…2,500ºC

    At this temperature, most element know to man melt just like asteroids entering Earth upper atmosphere consuming it even for a very quick period, but the ISS suppose to permanently inside the extreme heat zone.

    Lens special effect curbing the horizon showing clearly the Nile Delta as large as a quarter of Africa and the Mediterranean as large as the Atlantic.


    If the International Space Station/Orbit height is at 408km altitude, there is no reason to curb the horizon. The truth is that the ISS is at altitude around 100km to 120km, the safe zone. This is how high Human can go so far depending on solar and cosmic rays activities and the position compared to the Van Allen Belts shape.


    𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐒𝐨𝐥𝐚𝐫 𝐌𝐢𝐧𝐢𝐦𝐮𝐦 𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐫𝐭𝐬 𝐧𝐨𝐰 𝐥𝐚𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝟑 𝐬𝐨𝐥𝐚𝐫 𝐜𝐲𝐜𝐥𝐞𝐬, 𝐭𝐨 𝐛𝐞 𝐟𝐨𝐥𝐥𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐝 𝐛𝐲 𝐈𝐜𝐞-𝐀𝐠𝐞 𝐚𝐫𝐨𝐮𝐧𝐝 𝟐𝟎𝟓𝟎 𝐥𝐚𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐭𝐡𝐨𝐮𝐬𝐚𝐧𝐝𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐲𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐬.
    Wild jetstream trajectories, typhoons, and solar activities, similar to this year, will increase financial value lost,
    ✘ but not an increase in intensity and frequency on a solar cycle average.
    Trajectory change is occurring, as typhoons affect Japan more than other places.
    Galactic cosmic rays induced quakes, and volcanic activities will increase, consequences;

    𝐆𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐒𝐨𝐥𝐚𝐫 𝐌𝐢𝐧𝐢𝐦𝐮𝐦 𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐫𝐭𝐬 𝐧𝐨𝐰, 2018:
    𝐅𝐨𝐥𝐥𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐝 𝐛𝐲 𝐈𝐜𝐞-𝐀𝐠𝐞 𝐚𝐫𝐨𝐮𝐧𝐝 𝟐𝟎𝟓𝟎

    After few Ice-Ages, Big Melts, and Interglacials, the sun will spent the next 7.7 billion years getting bigger, hotter, cooler, changing color, and eventually transforming into a white dwarf. All it will do best is to destroy the Earth.

    The biggest threat for mankind in a few billion years, is the hotbed Earth. As the sun is getting bigger and hotter:
    Earth temperature will look more like Venus of 480°C average, then later, when the atmosphere and water is gone, like Mercury (-180°C to 480°C).
    ✅ Mars, with actual distance from the sun of 142 million miles will be closer to the sun. Temperature will be closer to today Earth without life supporting atmosphere and water.

    This is why it is a necessity to build and/or invest in a system capable for us to leave this planet, and relocate on Mars by bringing both water and Earth atmosphere with us.

    It is obvious that in the 21st Century, we are nowhere in Space Program, because of extreme heat, extreme cold, extreme radiation, …

    The real solution is the capacity to bring to space huge amount of materials to build mega spaceships that include nuclear power plants, farms, factories, cities, and anything else needed to sustain and defense themselves against any threat on a new planet.

    This is how large and tall in real scale a structure of 200 x 200 x 120 km above Laos of 1000 km from North to South.


    Using freshwater from typhoons stored since eons under the ground and refilled each year, the internal lifts (working like car motor pistons) will be filled using pumps to lift the pod up.

    When lift valves open synchronously, they will increase water pressure to power the Hydroloop, transporting water, pods, and coldness at high-speed to as far as Africa so they can use the energy to generate electricity, water to cool down, green the Sahara, feed the industries, etc, …

    L𝐞𝐭’𝐬 𝐛𝐞𝐠𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐥 𝐬𝐩𝐚𝐜𝐞-𝐚𝐠𝐞 𝐭𝐨 𝐞𝐱𝐩𝐥𝐨𝐫𝐞 𝐨𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐫 𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐫𝐬 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐭𝐚𝐤𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐠𝐨𝐨𝐝 𝐜𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐭𝐡𝐢𝐬 𝐩𝐥𝐚𝐧𝐞𝐭.

    This project is 100% feasible and it’s ready for immediate marketing.
    ✅ Will increase money creation for interest earnings in the order of $trillions
    ✅ Will increase raw materials demands, require technologies and know-how across the planet
    ✅ Will supply safer, more comfortable living for many before relocation to Mars, therefore increase property markets
    ✅ Logistics and transport will increase by many folds
    ✅ Every country GDP will increase together with purchasing power
    ✅ Pension funds and other investment earning will perform much better
    ✅ 𝐆𝐨𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐧𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐁𝐨𝐧𝐝𝐬 of participated 𝐜𝐨𝐮𝐧𝐭𝐫𝐢𝐞𝐬 that will be 𝐬𝐚𝐯𝐞𝐝 by our system from risks and 𝐟𝐫𝐨𝐦 𝐦𝐚𝐬𝐬 𝐞𝐱𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧, 𝐦𝐞𝐚𝐧𝐬 𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐲 𝐜𝐨𝐮𝐧𝐭𝐫𝐲 on Earth will outperform.
    ✅ Space Exploration market will worth $trillions, even $quadrillions